With this article we are going to begin a short series on the biogeography of panhandle vertebrates. Biogeography is the study of distribution of life and why species are found where they are. Many are interested in what species are found in a specific location, such as which sharks are found in our area, but understanding why others are not is as interesting.
All species have a point of origin and from there they disperse across the landscape, or ocean, until they reach a barrier that stops that dispersal. These barriers can be something physical, like a mountain range, something climatic, like the average temperature, or something biological, like to abundance of a specific food or predator. There are a lot of barriers that impede dispersal and explain why some species are not present in some locations.
Sharks are marine fish. In general, there is little to impede the dispersal of marine fish. All oceans are connected and there is no reason why a shark found in the Gulf of Mexico could not swim to Australia, and some have. But there are barriers that keep some species of south Florida fish from reaching north Florida – mean water temperature being one.
There are 24 species of sharks from nine different families found in the Gulf of Mexico. Most have a wide distribution range, and some are found worldwide. Nurse sharks are more tropical, common in the Keys, but are found in our area of the northern Gulf of Mexico. They are fans of structure and are often found near our artificial reefs.
Whale sharks and hammerheads are circumtropical, meaning they are restricted by water temperature but found worldwide in warmer waters. Whale sharks are the largest of all fish, reaching a mean length of 45 feet, and are not common near shore. They are plankton feeders and, though large, are harmless to humans. There are five species of hammerheads found in the Gulf of Mexico. They are easily identified by their “hammer” shaped head and are known for their large dorsal fin that, at times, will extend above the surface while they are swimming. Finding species of hammerhead inside the bay is not uncommon.
Several of our local sharks are not as restricted by water temperature and are found as far north as Canada. Sand tigers, threshers, and dogfish seem to prefer the cooler waters and, though found in the Gulf, are not common. There are two members of the mackerel shark family found here. Great whites, of movie fame, prefer cooler waters and are found worldwide – except for polar waters. There are records in the Gulf, but most are offshore in cooler waters. As you know, these are large predatory sharks, reaching up to 25 feet in length, and are known to feed on large prey such as seals. Their cousin the shortfin mako, prefers warmer waters and is more common here. Nearshore encounters with makos is rare but has happened.
The largest family, and best known, are the requiem sharks. There are 13 species in the Gulf, and many are common in our area. Many are not as restricted by water temperature and can be found as far north as New York. Bull sharks are not restricted by salinity and have been found up rivers in Alabama, and Louisiana. Silky sharks are more tropical, and the tiger and spinner sharks are more circumtropical.
The geographic distribution of sharks seems centered on water temperature. Most can easily swim the oceans to locations across the globe but congregate in areas of preferred temperatures and food. Though feared because of attacks on humans, a rare thing actually, they are fascinating animals and world travelers.