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Dogfennel Control in Pastures

Dogfennel is a native perennial plant found across much of the southeastern United States.  It is an aggressive weed species that can invade under-improved, unimproved, or overgrazed pasture. Infestation with dogfennel can lead to a decline in overall forage yield and quality. Cattle tend to bypass dogfennel when grazing, but have been known to consume the plant if more suitable forage is not available. This can be problematic as dogfennel contains low levels of tremitol, which can cause dehydration in cattle.

Dogfennel Biology

Most dogfennel growth occurs from rosettes that have overwintered low to the ground during the cool season. However, once the soil temperature reached a constant 65°F, seeds will sprout as well. Dogfennel tend to grow in a single shoot without any large branching up to eight feet in height. Dormancy typically occurs from January to March. Bolting of the plant occurs from April to June, with flowering in September and October. Seed dispersal occurs during November and December. Dogfennel plants are also able to spread via underground rootstocks that branch from the main taproot of the plant. This results in plant colony formation in the pasture.

Dogfennel Control with Herbicides

Unlike many other plants, there is no month or time of year that is specifically recommended for the use of herbicides on dogfennel. The recommendations for herbicide treatment are based on the height of the plant. In general, smaller plants are easier to control than larger plants. This holds true with dogfennel as well. Plants that are under 20 inches in height are controlled with 2,4-D amine itself or with herbicides that contain 2,4-D amine, such as WeedMaster). As the plant height increases over 20 inches, the amount of control offered by 2,4-D amine decreases. Plants that are between 20 and 36 inches in height will typically see a control rate of 80 to 85%. However, once the plants are above 36 inches in height, control with this herbicide decreases dramatically.

Large dogfennel plants (those over 36 inches in height), require a different approach for control as compared to smaller plants. When a pasture is infested with large dogfennel plants, it is also important to consider both the type of grass (forage) in the pasture along with other weeds that are present. If the large dogfennel plants are the primary weed, the recommendation is to use Pasturegard HL at 1.5 pints per acre.

If there are additional weed species present that need to be controlled, such as tropical soda apple, it is recommended to use a combination of GrazonNext HL (at 1.5 pints per acre) along with one of the following: 1) Pasturegard HL at 0.5 pints per acre, 2) 2,4-D amine at 3 pints per acre, or 3) 2,4-D amine + dicamba at 2 pints per acre. The combination of these chemicals will provide control with low injury to your forage crop. There is an exception to this rule: if you are growing limpograss for forage, do not apply any product containing 2,4-D between May 1 and November 1, as this will result in severe injury to the limpograss.

Other Considerations

While the height of the dogfennel plant is very important to consider when choosing an herbicide option, there is another consideration that must be taken into account. That consideration is drought condition. Early spring tends to be one of the driest times of year in North Florida, but it is also the time of year when weeds are small and tend to be controlled easiest. If it is dry enough that plants are wilting during the day, then application of herbicide is probably not going to be effective against dogfennel.

For additional information on the biology and control of dogfennel, please visit the UF/IFAS Extension EDIS database at The landing page for the EDIS site can be found at

Another weed that is commonly found in pastures containing dogfennel, is Flat-top Goldenrod. An article describing the biology and control of this weed can be found at

5 Comments on “Dogfennel Control in Pastures

  1. Help! I have had a problem with dog fennel for several years and they seem to continue to grow even when we pulled them up by hand. I need to know what to do to get rid of these weeds so that if I till the property up and Seed will it produce properly?
    My other concern is if I spray something on these dog fennel will they hurt my cows?
    I’ve always raise cows with my family but now I’m in charge of the land which I’ve never had to do this part.
    Please advise what would be best.
    Thank you
    Connie Gabriel

    • Connie,

      Dog fennel can be very difficult to control as it will sprout if any root tissue is left underground. It is best to study the “Dog Fennel Control with Herbicides” section of this article and decide at what height your dog fennel is and what you will need to control it.

      If used correctly (according to the label), the herbicides will have no ill-effects on your cattle.

  2. How to get rid of dogfennel in a clear cut that has been planted with pine tree

    • Oust (sulfometuron) is labeled to control dog fennel. Earlier they can treat dog fennel the better, before it reaches 16” high and becomes woody. Note that Oustar is no longer manufactured but the Oust can be tank mixed with Velpar (hexazinone) and both products will take advantage of the pre- and post-emergent activity.

      Herbaceous weed control (grasses and broadleaf weeds) applied over-the-top of planted longleaf seedlings in early spring, at least one month after planting to allow for new root growth prior to herbicide treatment.
      Hexazinone plus
      Sulfometuron 6 oz ai/Ac +
      1.5 oz ai/Ac Velpar® L
      Oust® XP 24 oz liq. +
      2 oz mass/Ac Tank mix, very broad spectrum for grasses and broadleaves.
      Hexazinone plus
      Sulfometuron 7.6 oz ai/Ac
      1.4 oz ai/Ac Oustar® *12 oz/Ac Pre-packaged mix, very broad spectrum.
      *Use 10 oz product on sandy soils.

      Another option to keep in mind when dogfennel is getting away and overtopping pine seedlings is a wicking bar application, using glyphosate in the wick, set at a height so you drive over the rows but also over all the young. Glyphosate works very well on dogfennel that’s reaching excessive height, but not yet past 20″ tall or so. This also interrupts the late flowering and seed set of this plant and reduces future problems.

      These approaches can help with other pest plants, but dogfennel does tend to fade away once we get trees tall enough to start making shade and more needles to carry a fire.