While palms may survive, or even thrive, for years in climates cooler than those to which they are native, eventually they will experience temperatures cold enough to cause injury. Here in Northwest Florida, it was January 2014. Unfortunately, much of the damage was not evident until the summer of 2015. The palms held on with stored food reserves.
When cold damage is severe, plant tissues are destroyed and water uptake into the plant may be reduced for years. Many times it is only the protected bud that will remain alive. The stem slowly weakens until it can’t support the weight of the crown and it collapses.
Winter is upon us again. So, if you still have palms in the landscape, be prepared, should we experience some extreme weather. Here’s a reminder of what to do.
One of the most common problems associated with freezes is that the freeze-killed lower portion of the spear leaf is degraded by secondary fungi and bacteria that are always present in our natural environment. Palm owners are often anxious to trim off the damaged leaves following a cold weather event. Avoid the temptation to remove these fronds until danger of additional freezes has passed. Even dead leaves provide insulation to the critical bud.
As the weather warms, the dead fronds need to be removed from around the bud so that the spear can begin to dry out. Drenching the bud area with a copper fungicide will reduce the secondary microbes. Repeat applications will need to continue as the palm leaves develop. Copper fungicides, unlike other fungicides, are active against bacteria and fungi. Be cautious to not use a copper nutrient spray rather than a fungicide. Delay fertilizer application until new fronds have developed. The best analysis for palms is 8-2-12 + 4Mg. Utilization of proper palm fertilization can improve cold hardiness of palms.
Palms damaged by cold can still show symptoms six months to a year following a freeze. New leaves in the spring may appear mis-shaped. Usually the palm will outgrow the damage. However, sometimes the palm loses its ability to take up water. If there is a sudden collapse of the fronds in the crown during the first hot days, the palm may die. There is nothing that can be done to save the palm.