Bald cypress Taxodium distichum is a native tree that is commonly planted in landscapes because it is adaptable to many sites and grows quickly. It is an interesting tree because it has soft flat leaves that fall off in the winter like other deciduous shade trees; however, it belongs to the Cypress family which consists mostly of needled evergreens.
Like the other cypresses, bald cypress produces cones in the fall, which is a primary means of reproduction for the species in natural settings. During the same season that cones are maturing, you might also see what looks like cones forming at the tips of branches among the leaflets rather than along the stem. These mysterious growths are not cones but rather twig galls.
Bald cypress twig galls are abnormal growths of leaf bud tissue triggered by the attack of the cypress twig gall midge Taxodiomyia cupressiananassa. In late spring, adult midges lay eggs on new leaves of the bald cypress. As the eggs hatch and midge larvae start feeding on the bald cypress leaves the growth of a twig gall is induced. The larvae take advantage of this gall using it for food and shelter throughout the larval stage and into the pupal stage. After pupation, adults emerge from the galls, mate, and females lay an average of 120 eggs over a two-day lifespan as an adult. This first generation lays eggs on mature leaves which starts the cycle again. The galls formed by the second generation of the year fall off and overwinter on the ground.
The galls do not appear to affect the health of trees overall, although the weight of heavily infested branches may cause drooping. There are many natural enemies of the twig cypress gall midge, so applying insecticides are not recommended since they may cause harm to non-target insects. The simplest management option is to collect and destroy the galls in the spring and fall to reduce populations the following season.
To read more about bald cypress trees or the twig gall please see the following publications: