Cattle DO Cause Climate Change

Cattle Do Cause Climate Change

But not in the way you might think….

Let’s talk about US Beef production and its impact on our environment, our world, and our future.

During their entire life cycle from pasture to plate (that includes feed production, fuel, electricity, etc.) beef cattle make up 3.3% of US Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. Compare that to transportation (25.3%) and electricity (29.7%) which make up over 55% of the United States GHG emissions, cattle are barely a drop in the bucket. US Beef only accounts for .47% of global GHG emissions. Yup, that’s right, less than half of one percent!

Where do those GHGs come from?

Cows don’t fart…

Methane, the main GHG attributed to cattle is actually from cow belches (and somewhat manure production). Cows consume plants which are full of carbon. Cattle release excess carbon in the form of methane (CH4) by expelling it through their mouth. This methane enters the atmosphere where, in about 10 years time, it is oxidized to carbon dioxide (CO2). The carbon dioxide is then reabsorbed by plants during respiration, or absorbed by the ocean. This natural cycle operates perfectly, if it stays balanced. So what is throwing it off?

Fossil fuel production, which dredges up carbon stored deep in the earth, and other sources of emissions are throwing the carbon balance off. This off-kilter scale is exhibited by the large contribution of GHG emissions by the transportation and electricity industries, the main users of fossil fuel. 1 gallon of fossil fuel produced equals 20 pounds of carbon dioxide released into the environment!

So yes, cows do release methane. Cows release methane because of their unique digestive system set up, a system that makes them incredibly valuable to sustainable food production.

Ruminate on This!


Cattle eating Hemp Byproducts (Photo Credit: Justin Moran)

Did you know that cattle produce 19% more human-edible protein than they eat in their lifetime? Cattle are upcyclers! They take nutrients that are in a human-inedible form, like grasses, and turn it into one of the top nutrient sources available to us! Cattle also recycle byproducts from other industries. Rations (diets formulated for cattle) often include materials from other industries that otherwise would have gone to the landfill. These ingredients could be citrus pulp from orange juice production, cotton seed hulls from cotton production, hemp fiber from hemp oil extraction, distillers grains from alcohol production, even candy that is deemed unmarketable (spilled Skittles) can be fed to cattle! Cattle take resources that would otherwise be sent to the landfill and turn it into human-edible protein. Since landfills cause about 2.2% of GHG emissions in the US, cattle are really working to reduce GHG every day!


Cattle eating a ration diet.

The small amount of products that are fed to cattle that are human-edible (mainly corn), are used to increase the sustainability of cattle. Grain-fed cattle reach market weights faster thereby using less resources, like land and water, in their lifetime. Grain-finished cattle show between a 18.5% to 67.5% lower carbon footprint when compared to grass-finished beef. These differences can be contributed to the high energy feed allowing for faster growth, shorter time in the finishing phase, and higher carcass weights at harvest, meaning more beef with less inputs! Grass-finished beef can reduce their carbon footprint by 42% if they use forage from grasslands that sequester carbon.


Use Less, Waste Less. It’s What We Do!
  • Per pound of beef carcass weight, cattle only consume 2.6 pounds of grain, which is similar to pork and poultry.
  • Corn used to feed beef cattle only represents approximately 9 percent of harvested corn grain in the U.S., or 8 million acres.
  • On average, it takes 308 gallons of water, which is recycled, to produce a pound of boneless beef. In total, water use by beef is only around 5 percent of U.S. water withdrawals.
  • Total fossil energy input to U.S. beef cattle production is equivalent to 0.7 percent of total national consumption of fossil fuels.
It’s Not All About The Beef

Cattle don’t just provide us with high quality protein source. Byproducts from beef production are all around us, in products we use every single day. 99% of every carcass is used, whether for meat or other products.


From one cow hide you can get

12 basketballs

144 baseballs

20 footballs

18 volleyballs

18 soccer balls

or 12 baseball gloves!


Did you know gelatin comes from connective tissues of the beef animal? Gelatin is included in products like Jell-O, gum, fruit snacks, and marshmallows! These industries rely on the beef industry to create their product.

Medical Products

Stearic Acid, found in fatty acids of the cattle are used to create many medical products. Ointments for burns and first aid creams also use products from cattle. Even the adhesive part of bandages come from cattle! Cattle are also used to harvest anti-rejection medications for transplant patients, and for insulin for diabetics.


Did you know asphalt contains a binding agent from beef cattle? Your tires contain stearic acid to maintain their elasticity, antifreeze contains glycerol, even your brake fluid contains animal byproducts! Luxury vehicles with leather seats are utilizing cattle every day.

Cattle are an essential part of our every day life, not only for the beef, but also for the thousands of products they are incorporated into! Learn about more products made from cattle here:

Ecosystem Services

US Ranching Ecosystem Services Economic Value America has 770 million acres of rangeland unsuitable for crop cultivation but perfect for cattle. Rangeland and pasture land create valuable open spaces for humans to enjoy for recreation and outdoor activities. Ecosystem services provided by cattle ranching in the U.S. has an estimated economic value of $14,813,875,051. That’s $14 billion dollars that American ranches will never see. For every pound of beef that ranches craft for consumers approximately $0.86 worth of ecosystem services is generated. Learn more about ecosystem services here.


US Beef versus Global Beef

Beef from the United States is by far the most productive and efficient form of beef production. The United States creates 18% of the worlds beef products with only 8% of the global cattle herd. This productivity can be attributed to higher quality feeds, less heat stress, improved animal genetics and reproduction, and faster growth. If US beef production practices were instilled on a global scale, the global herd would reduce by 62% while still producing the same amount of beef! Us Beef contributes between 50 and 250 units of CO2 equivalent per pound of protein, while continents like Africa and India produce 1000 to 2500 CO2 equivalent per pound of protein. US Beef production results in 10 to 50 times less CO2 equivalent in the atmosphere.

So..Cattle Do Cause Climate Change?

Yes! Cattle cause climate change in the right direction! Cattle, and beef production as whole, have a positive impact on the social, economic, and environmental aspects of the United States. It takes 36% less cattle to produce the same amount of beef now as it did in 1975. We are getting more and more efficient every year, which is great since we’ll need to produce 70% more food to feed the world in 2050! Ranches are continuously sequestering carbon, allowing for groundwater recharge and providing open spaces for wildlife habitats and recreational activities while simultaneously crafting the worlds top protein choice. If every American were to eliminate beef from the diet, only 1.9% of GHG emissions would be eliminated. In reality, emissions from increased crop production or other animal products could easily eliminate any chance of reduced GHG emissions.

So What Can We Do?

If eliminating beef from the diet (or meat in general) won’t help reduce climate change, what will? Did you know that 20% of edible beef produced in the United States is wasted every year? That’s millions of pounds of beef heading straight to the landfill every single year! Food waste is a major issue, between 30 & 40% of food is wasted in the United States. Wasted food goes to landfills where its decomposition increases GHG emissions, in fact landfills account for roughly 2.2% of the US GHG emissions. If just 50% less beef was wasted annually, beef sustainability would increase by 10%!

Food waste campaigns have been active for decades.

Wasting less food can be a major contribution every American can start today!

Learn more about the FACTS behind sustainable beef production here!

Posted: September 27, 2019

Category: Agriculture, Conservation, Health & Nutrition, Livestock, Natural Resources, UF/IFAS, UF/IFAS Extension, Water, Wildlife, Work & Life
Tags: Animals, Farm, FL, Livestock, NFLAG, Sizzling Science


Alicia Halbritter

February 17, 2022

Our 2022 Small Ruminant Workshop will be held in Gainesville in the fall, dates TBD.

Duk Kim
January 29, 2022

Is there any workshop for small ruminent in2022? Thank you. Duk Kim

Wiersz Poleceń
January 24, 2022

You made a number of good points there. I did a search on the theme and found the majority of persons will go along with with your blog.

January 3, 2022

Wow, I love this aquatic plant and your post takes me back 47 years when myself and another Botany student were gliding along in canal is the Everglades area. I spotted the plant and we both stopped paddling as we drifted by. And we drifted right by a huge gator, 12 footer, basking on the canal bank. Both the plant and the gator took our breath away. That is to say we held our breath hoping we did not startle that gator, he/she could easily have swamped our canoe! That is my first experience of seeing this plant in its natural setting. Thank you for your blog on the little things.

Alicia Halbritter

October 14, 2021

Detached air cells are not a food safety concern. It generally means the egg was laid defective or it was handled roughly which broke the membranes that hold the air sac in place. As always, if you have food safety concerns is it easier to just toss the egg.

Alicia Halbritter

October 14, 2021

This is not a juice you'll find available in stores. I am not sure if there is a difference in flavors among the various species.

Md. Lutfar Rahman
October 14, 2021

is there any beauty berry juice available for drinking? Again is there any difference in taste or clour among chinese, japanese or American beauty berries. I'm from Bangladesh... thank u

Howard Miles
October 5, 2021

Does a detached & floating air cell mean my fresh eggs are bad? I have a backyard flock & I gather eggs twice a day and candle them for blood spots. I have noticed a few have a floating air cell in them. Are they safe to eat or not.

Alicia Halbritter

October 4, 2021

The bird will continue to be a carrier for the disease. Her infectious load may be small but still has the potential to infect other birds and therefore it is best to humanely euthanize.

Liz lowery
September 29, 2021

If a hen chick was blind from few days old,from Merck’s disease,Is she contagious immediately,or not until she gets sick again,much later. It’s stated by experts,that a blinded ocular Merck’s ,does not kill them.They can live several years. Are they contagious from early on? Thanks.

Alicia Halbritter

September 27, 2021

I can't find any specific resources with a definitive answer to this question, but many say yes, beautyberry is safe to can in jelly.

Alicia Halbritter

September 27, 2021

Hi Lucia, turning the eggs should not be a huge issue and the drop in temperature should not be enough to affect the eggs. Good luck!

September 26, 2021

Hi, I have 5 duck eggs doing well in my incubator, one hatching next week and the others with a bit longer to go. I have had to lay 3 of them flat because they don't fit properly and I now want to move them into a new incubator but am scared it might harm them to go from lying on their sides to sitting upright? Also they have been incubated at 38 degrees Celsius and I would like the new incubator to be set at 37.5,will the decrease in temperature be okay for them? Thank you so much for any advice.

September 13, 2021

Are beautyberries low enough in Ph to can safely?

Alicia Halbritter

September 9, 2021

I am not sure on specific information regarding these diseases and was not able to find anything online. However, beautyberry is generally considered pest & disease resistant.

September 9, 2021

Is beauty berry resistant to rust and also to black knot?

July 17, 2021

thanks for sharing best information

Alicia Halbritter

July 16, 2021

Only approved representatives can enter the AIMS site, this includes USDA representatives, state agriculture reps (Florida Department of Ag) and many approved tagging sites (like sale barns). Typically, many cattle don't have USDA registered numbers until they leave their birth place and go through an official channel like a sale barn that requires the USDA approved tag. If you were to have a cow die that has a USDA tag associated with your premise ID, it is best to at least keep records of that if you are not going to retire the number with USDA rep. These numbers are only utilized if a cow is found to have some disease, so an abundance of "dead" tags is not really an issue. There is more of an issue of private sales of USDA-tagged cattle and no trace record of what operations they have been on, since these individuals rarely contact representatives to have the ID numbers moved to the next premise ID.

Luis Perez
July 16, 2021

So this is not something that can be done by the producer by accesing a web base system for example. It has to be done by an USDA representative

Alicia Halbritter

July 16, 2021

Hi Mr. Perez, Technically yes, you should be reporting the "retiring" of any tag number that has been assigned to your premise ID. You can do this by contacting your local Department of Agriculture representative. Of course, that is if the tag will not be removed and re-used on the operation.

تعبیر خواب
July 16, 2021

Very informative and helpful website. Thanks for sharing the information with us

Luis Perez
July 15, 2021

Hi Alicia I have a question. Is there an obligation to report traced animals that for some reason die within the farm? If so how is this done? To put it another way, how are animals that die taken out of the database? If this is not done there are going to be a lot of animals in the database with an unknown status.

Alicia Halbritter

June 15, 2021

Yes! The only epiphytic orchid growing outside of Florida in the US :)

Rich Ackerman
June 15, 2021

I’m sure you meant to say the Epidendrum magnoliae (not “magonliae”) is the only epiphyte growing outside of Florida, not that it is the only orchid growing outside of Florida. The USDA Plant database returns 705 records when you search for “orchid”. It is a nice plant that grows in the northern part of the state. It cannot take the heat of South Florida.

Alicia Halbritter

June 14, 2021

Yes they are!

Bob Mays
June 14, 2021

Aren’t lady’s slippers orchids? They occur throughout the Appalachians.

دانلود آهنگ
May 10, 2021

Very informative and helpful Blog. Thanks for sharing the information with us

دانلود آهنگ
April 26, 2021

Very informative and helpful Blog. Thanks for sharing the information with us

Alicia Halbritter

April 21, 2021

To my knowledge, only state officials can access the national Animal Identification Management System (AIMS). You can reach out to your local FDACS animal industry inspector to see if they can access the report for you. However, this report will only tell you whoever originally put the ear tag in, it won't tell you where the cow has been since unless it went through an official channel (like a sale barn). Private individuals are unlikely to report the transfer of tagged cattle if purchased through private/individual sales.

April 21, 2021

I want to figure out where my heifer came from since I don’t believe the person that sold her to us. How do I look up her metal tad Id number?

delia dobra
April 14, 2021

Thank you very much Ms Alicia

Alicia Halbritter

April 14, 2021

You could plant through May if you have enough soil moisture. There are a few varieties we recommend: Louisiana S-1, Osceola, Ocoee, Regal Graze, Patriot, or Durana. All have seen successful stands planted in Florida. You can find more information on white clover here:

delia dobra
April 13, 2021

Dear Alicia, When is the ideal planting time for clover here in NorthCentral Florida? (zone 8b). We are planting a pecan grove in January/February and found out that clover is a recommended companion plant. Also, which varieties for Florida grow best? Would very much appreciate your input. Cheers Delia Dobra

Alicia Lamborn

April 8, 2021

Hi Carolyn, I sent you an email for more information. Please respond directly to the email so I can help assist you. Thanks!

Carolyn Hinkelman
April 8, 2021

We burn our Almond wood all winter. It is from our trees that have blown over, cut up and stored for this use. I will try to find a way to test the garden soil, no one in my family has ever tested their soil. Grandpa and Dad grew beautiful onions (red 3" across), okra and lots of tomatoes. Any answer would be appreciated (email I have 1, 5 gallon bucket of ash that I can put on the chicken manure from our 10 hen and one rooster in layers with soil to start my mulch pile for next year. Thank you. Carolyn

Alicia Halbritter

April 7, 2021

Unfortunately we cannot give veterinary advice and it is difficult to help you without more information on the birds.

Alicia Halbritter

April 7, 2021

Thanks so much Holly!

April 6, 2021

I'm just seeing this article but I want to say great job! The beef industry appreciates you, thank you for being an advocate! We need people like you more now than ever.

March 28, 2021

Good morning sir, Pls help me, I ve these layers I gave antibiotics to them. For seven days and the course of the drugs, they stopped laying, their weight reduced drastically. Pls. Sir what can I do, I don't money for veterinary doc.

Alicia Halbritter

March 22, 2021

I am not. But you are welcome to send me photos to my email: for an ID.

March 21, 2021

Are you in the Florida Backyard Gardening facebook group? I posted a photo there hoping a botanist could identify if it's a crotalaria retusa or crotalaria spectabilis.
February 4, 2021

It’s great to be here with everyone, I have a lot of knowledge from what you share, to say thanks, the information and knowledge here helps me a lot.

Alicia Lamborn

January 19, 2021

I know from experience that some cactus will tolerate alkaline conditions, but it is preferable to avoid highly alkaline soils. So, the use of wood ash largely depends on your existing soil pH. Since nutrients can easily be leached from sandy soils, the addition of nutrients like potassium may be beneficial. But if your soil pH is within the preferrable range, the addition of wood ash may not be beneficial unless you only apply small amounts and monitor for changes in pH. Soil pH and nutrient testing is available through the UF/IFAS Soil Testing Lab:

Alicia Lamborn

January 19, 2021

There are different species of Firespike in the genus Odontonema, which are native to Central America. Although not native to the United States, they are not considered invasive in Florida and make a nice addition to perennial gardens. If you are looking to use native plants in the landscape, we have some resources on our website:

Susan Ryan
January 19, 2021

Can you use wood ash on cactus that is planted in sand? In Florida what is a good plan to use wood ash in sandy soil?

January 18, 2021

Is the purple firspike a native plant

Katten gekte
December 16, 2020

Enjoyed looking through this, very good stuff, thanks . "What the United States does best is to understand itself. What it does worst is understand others." by Carlos Fuentes.

Alicia Halbritter

December 1, 2020

Thanks for the suggestion! I watched it today and it is a good documentary to show the realistic side of agriculture! It had some really interesting concepts and I enjoyed watching it

December 1, 2020

I didn't see it referenced here, but I highly recommend the documentary movie Sacred Cow.

October 21, 2020

Amazing content and blog Alicia, I would like to say thank you for kindly share your thoughts and wisdom, keep doing this nice job, hope to read more nice and informative articles like this one, we know how experience worths. Best regards Your follower, Nomes

October 21, 2020

Very informative and helpful website. Thanks for sharing the information with us

Alicia Halbritter

October 20, 2020

Hi Crystal, You should receive an email from Zoom with the link to join the program.

Crystal Johnson
October 20, 2020

I signed up for all classes can you tell me How I will be able to be logged on and if I actually have a spot

متن آهنگ
October 8, 2020

Very informative and helpful Blog. Thanks for sharing the information with us

Alicia Halbritter

October 6, 2020

Oust (sulfometuron) is labeled to control dog fennel. Earlier they can treat dog fennel the better, before it reaches 16” high and becomes woody. Note that Oustar is no longer manufactured but the Oust can be tank mixed with Velpar (hexazinone) and both products will take advantage of the pre- and post-emergent activity. (from Herbaceous weed control (grasses and broadleaf weeds) applied over-the-top of planted longleaf seedlings in early spring, at least one month after planting to allow for new root growth prior to herbicide treatment. Hexazinone plus Sulfometuron 6 oz ai/Ac + 1.5 oz ai/Ac Velpar® L Oust® XP 24 oz liq. + 2 oz mass/Ac Tank mix, very broad spectrum for grasses and broadleaves. Hexazinone plus Sulfometuron 7.6 oz ai/Ac 1.4 oz ai/Ac Oustar® *12 oz/Ac Pre-packaged mix, very broad spectrum. *Use 10 oz product on sandy soils. Another option to keep in mind when dogfennel is getting away and overtopping pine seedlings is a wicking bar application, using glyphosate in the wick, set at a height so you drive over the rows but also over all the young. Glyphosate works very well on dogfennel that’s reaching excessive height, but not yet past 20" tall or so. This also interrupts the late flowering and seed set of this plant and reduces future problems. These approaches can help with other pest plants, but dogfennel does tend to fade away once we get trees tall enough to start making shade and more needles to carry a fire.

Carol Sigler
October 2, 2020

Live stock includes the family dog as far as toxicity goes. I had the native for my butterfly garden and some “wild” invasive which Brody thought was scrumptious. After a frantic call to the vet and administering an emetic my yard no longer has lantana.

September 30, 2020

How to get rid of dogfennel in a clear cut that has been planted with pine tree

Alicia Lamborn

September 25, 2020

Duval County, FL

September 25, 2020

Where is Doug Moore originality from?

Alicia Halbritter

September 1, 2020

Chicks should be housed in groups according to their age. You should not mix ranging age groups as the older ones have the potential to injure younger ones.

Alicia Halbritter

September 1, 2020

Hi Richard, We cannot comment on bird health or give treatment recommendations as we are not veterinarians. Any time you notice your chicken acting differently it could be a sickness or other behavioral explanation. I would reach out to a vet for specific consult.

Alicia Halbritter

September 1, 2020

Peggy, You can certainly email photos to and I will identify for you.

Peggy Van Houten
September 1, 2020

Do you have a person who can ID poison ivy? We have a vine growing on the high tree with dull 3 leaves and fragrant white flowers. It looks similar to the pictures on the Google site for poison ivy, but our landscaper says it isn't poison ivy. He thinks it might be a honeysuckle vine. I guess that I don't feel confident of that diagnosis. My husband did touch it without any bad problems.

August 27, 2020

My question is that Can I put chicks in one house with separate water and feed day after day until this birds ready to go market

Richard Rowland
August 22, 2020

I have six hens. A couple of them have just begun to lay. However, one of the six has been acting strange. They are allowed outside their building during the day. She will often squat as if setting on a nest and ignore the activities of the others even when I throw feed. Last evening, I noticed she was not up on the higher roast with the others as usual but had roosted at a lower level. I'm concerned she may be sick. Any information is appreciated. Richard

Alicia Halbritter

August 11, 2020

Hi Gladys, Traditionally we do not have many crops available for sale in Baker County, especially in large quantities. However, we do have a few commercial size producers such as Hodges Produce and Double Blake Farms. There are a few others that sell local fruits/vegetables but I am not sure on the amount they would be able to supply regularly. I recommend having the jail reach out to the Extension office if they would like to be put in contact with our local producers.

Logical Science
July 30, 2020

“The most profound choice in life is to either accept things as they exist or to accept the responsibility for changing them.” —from The Universal Traveler by Don Koberg and Jim Bagnall

Antonio Arellano
July 27, 2020

Outstanding explanations! I really value such an article. I am from Mexico where we are struggling to improve both efficiency and productivity regarding cattle and similar businesses. This will be very helpful to do so! Thank you!

Gladys M. Lane
July 27, 2020

I am a member of Baker Interfaith Friends. We have been visiting detainees at Baker Jail until the virus interfered. One of the comments we always hear is that there are never fresh fruits or vegetables available. We met with one of the jail staff and were told that no fruit or vegetables grow in Baker County because the soil is so poor. We felt that buying fresh food locally would help the grower and the detainees at the jail. Living in Gainesville, I am very much aware of IFAS and their knowledge and assistance. Can you recommend growers who do produce fresh food in quantity that could be sold to Baker County Jail. Thanks so much for your help.

July 27, 2020


Alicia Halbritter

July 15, 2020

Hi Shawna, It is difficult to say, but could be a condition we call "splayed leg". Sometimes this can be remediated with splinting but it is best to seek veterinary advice.

July 14, 2020

I have a 5 week old chicken that I hatched out. 3 days ago I found it laying in the yard. It cannot stand. There were no visual marks. The chick can move both legs on its own. It is alert and eats, drinks, and poops with no problem. What is wrong with it?

June 23, 2020

Thank you for the knowledge..

suba suba
June 11, 2020

I think this is a real great blog.Much thanks again. Awesome.

Alicia Lamborn

May 28, 2020

Hi Ali, Organic compost is great for supplying plant nutrients, retaining soil moisture and is sometimes useful for adjusting pH. I don't believe any of the materials you mentioned are strongly acidic if you are wishing to lower the soil pH. Leaf litter can help lower pH, but I've read that it becomes less acidic during the composting process. Coconut husks tend to be slightly acidic to neutral, but would certainly help retain water in sandy soils. Fish products are good for adding micro-nutrients in addition to some macros. One resource I like to reference for soil amendments and fertilizers can be found here: And for composting tips, see:

Ali Shafeeg
May 14, 2020

Dear Like to know fishmeal, coconut husk, leaf litters can make a good compost to suit alkaline soil that is found in the Maldives. We are atoll islands form from coral sand and close to the sea.

March 15, 2020

If you plan to keep him alone forever-as a pet- the only safe and humane thing to do is have your bull castrated. If he is a steer you will have less chance of him breaking through a fence to find a girlfriend. If you keep him a bull and isolated he will lead a miserable and unfulfilled life and you could end up injured.

Alicia Halbritter

January 31, 2020

Hi Frank, You are correct that the suggestions made above won't save us from climate change. However, they are simple adjustments that most of the population can make to begin lowering their carbon footprint today without affecting their daily lives. These suggestions help us reach more people and get them in the habit of making small adjustments to their lives in order to help the environment. The points were also used to show how little impact eating meat has your carbon footprint and that consumers should not feel guilty about choosing a high quality nutrient source to feed their families. Thanks for engaging in the discussion! We always appreciate feedback on our articles.

January 31, 2020

Regarding "science doesn't line up with a few of your points" lets not forget that you can find science for any kind of opinion ... The alternative solutions provided are not sufficient in my opinion. E.g. your recommendation "respect speed limit to save co2" sounds quite cute when you can also change your car to EV that is charged from solar ... Of course your recommendation helps and is a valid point, but this won't save us from climate change ... I'd be happy to read further on your discussion ... Willing to share with us ?

Alicia Halbritter

January 24, 2020

I appreciate your willingness to engage in the conversation regarding our food supply. There is a lot of misinformation out there and I encourage you to speak to real agricultural producers to get the full story on where your food comes from. I did mention that a drastic change in meat consumption would lead to waste, and this is because of the time frame it would take for reduced demand to lead to reduced production. (All of the meat we will eat for the next 2-3 years had already been born or they are in utero now. This means, if we all stopped eating beef today the hanging meat would all go to waste and the beef herds on the ground today would have nowhere to go, or would be euthanized. ) Again, thanks for joining the conversation and I appreciate your thoughts. Happy Eating! Alicia Halbritter

Alicia Halbritter

January 24, 2020

4-H is a youth development program with loads of opportunities available for children aged 5-18.

Alicia Halbritter

January 24, 2020

Shawn, I appreciate your comments and willingness to engage in this conversation. It is important that we all take a look at our own choices and decide what is best for us. Although the science doesn't line up with a few of your points I recognize that we have the luxury of choosing our own diets and have many options available to us. Thank you for providing your opinion on the matter, if you'd like to discuss more you are welcome to shoot me an email and I'd be happy to answer any questions or provide relevant sources! ( Happy Eating! Alicia Halbritter

Shawn Mack
January 23, 2020

Thank you for your in depth report. You point out some good things, but I also feel like some are misguided or generalizations. First of all, my take on eating less meat to reduce our carbon footprint is something that will never be done overnight. By having an absolute, all or nothing view is unrealistic. I would prefer people to just eat less meat individually for not only their health, but the health of our planet as well. As a society, we have normalized eating meat 2-3 times a day in our meals on average, and not only that, but consuming twice the amount recommended per day to ward off disease. Meat consumption also looks different around the world, with variables such as climate, availability, and culture. Secondly, the industrialization of how we produce meat is the largest contributor to climate change. Think about this, where do we get the food to feed the cattle? How much land is being destroyed to create crops that strictly feed cattle alone? We might use 100 acres of corn or soy to feed, 10 acres of cattle, to feed even less people after all is said and done (don't quote me on those numbers as this is just a example. There are documentaries that state these numbers along with sources). Couldn't that original amount of land be used to grow plants? You mentioned gas and fuel in everyday life. That's true. But what about how much fuel and gas is used in the transportation across long distances by way of truck? Supply Chains are vast when it comes to the meat industry. This doesn't leave out transporting vegetables, but one solution is to buy from local farms, both meat and vegetables. By buying local, you reduce the amount of fuel used, and also get fresher food that support your local farmers. The other problem with industrial meat is the quality. The animals are warehoused and never live a life naturally as they would in the wild or, at least raised on a farm to graze and fertilize soil as intended. Industrial meat animals never leave their small pens and can also be pumped with antibiotics to keep them from getting sick due to the tight conditions. Then you eat that beef. What do you think happens to your body? Third, we are the most unhealthiest, fattest, highest anxiety countries in the world. Our diets are horrible, we eat too much, don't exercise or move enough, and all while throwing away too much. It's not about cutting out meat one day a week, it's about making more conscious decisions and learning about where our food comes from, and how food affects our bodies. Forth, meat being an essential nutrient is a little far fetched. Yes there are certain nutrients that an animal eats that we get nutrients from, such as B12 . This is actually a bacteria that comes from soil, hence the reason why cows eat grass and dirt and have this in their bodies. It is possible to be on a plant-based diet and get all of your nutrients. It is also possible to eat only a few times a week, if that, and live a very healthy life. Check out the Seventh Day Adventist study on their diet and lifestyle and why they are so healthy. Lastly, I appreciate your report, and I am not trying to bash your work. You have some good points in there. I just feel like some aspects were missing in painting this larger scale picture. Peace and Blessings -Shawn

Robert Addington
January 22, 2020

What is 4H?

Joseph Kingsley III
January 17, 2020

What rubbish! Eating less meat would cause more meat to go to waste? That is ignorant at best. If you have any knowledge of supply and demand - any - you would resize that reduced demand would lead to reduced “production.” Simply getting nutrients from meat is a reason to continue the horrible practices such as factory farming and meaningless killing and maltreatment of living beings sounds like logic our government would use. I’m shocked that IFAS with the little credibility it has would allow ridiculous content such as this. The alternatives have merit yet should absolutely not be in lieu of creating an increasingly environmentally aware society which also increases compassion. Look at real health reports about carcinogens.

Alicia Halbritter

December 16, 2019

Rachel, Each species will have to be identified to determine its invasiveness or toxicity. Not all sesbanes are toxic.

December 12, 2019

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a natural and beneficial constituent of the atmosphere. By volume percentage, 99% of dry air is nitrogen (78%) and oxygen (21%). Most of the rest is argon (0.93%), with carbon dioxide amounting to only 0.04%, but slowly increasing. Even smaller amounts of other gases, neon, helium, methane etc., make up the remainder. Atmospheric CO2 is a key to life on earth, this is because plants use sunlight to combine CO2 molecules from the air with H2O molecules to make carbohydrates (for example, sugar) and other organic compounds. In the process, oxygen molecules (O2) are released to the atmosphere. At CO2 levels less than 150 ppm (parts per million), most plants stop growing. Over most of the history of multicellular life on earth, CO2 levels have been three or four times higher than present levels. Current CO2 levels of 400 ppm are still much less than optimum for most plant growth.

November 22, 2019

What about other sesbanes? S. grandiflora or others -- should they also be removed?

Alicia Halbritter

November 19, 2019

Hi Tammy, The letters & numbers after the 2 digit state code are simply a unique identifying code for your animal. It is essentially your cows 'social security number'. No other cow has that combination of letters and numbers, the BXC means nothing in particular. Learn more here:

Tammy Galvan
November 18, 2019

I have a 11 month old calf and she has the metal tag in her ear I figured out the first two numbers are the state which is Florida but then there's three letters and then 4 numbers how do I find out what the letters mean? The letters are bxc does anyone know what this means?

Alicia Halbritter

November 12, 2019

Actually, Mr. Hall reduction in demand for meat will have little impact on GHG emissions since US cattle are only responsible for .47% of global GHG emissions and since cattle are 15-18 months before reaching market weight changes in demand take years to influence actual cattle numbers. As the blog explains, encouraging global practices to become as efficient as US beef production (which means globally increasing the demand for beef) will not only provide high quality protein at an affordable cost worldwide but also has the potential to reduce GHG emissions on a global scale and reduce the global herd numbers by 62%. We suggest you take a peak at our other blog Meatless Monday Can't Change the World to get an idea of some real world action you can take to make a significant impact on your personal GHG emissions (without sacrificing the taste & nutrition that meat provides)!

Alicia Halbritter

November 7, 2019

Ms. Willis, There are many rules and regulations regarding the movement of cattle, not only on a federal level but also on a state level. You are correct that in general, animals moving directly to slaughter do not need an identification tag and that federal regulations only require ID tags on animals over 18 months old. This article was only to explain the transition timeline of moving to RFID tags, no other part of the current cattle identification rules have proposed changes. Yes, the transition has been stalled for now and we are working on an updating the information here to prepare for potential changes to the plan.

Beth Willis
November 7, 2019

Ms. Halbritter, My working understanding of the Cattle ID program is different from the information you shared. Cattle that enter commerce through a livestock market do not have to be tagged. They are only required to be tagged if they leave the market for destinations other than a slaughter plant. Also I believe the USDA has changed the time line for EID requirements. As a point of information, the Federal rule only applies to over 18 month old bovine crossing state lines. It would be helpful if you would check your facts and revise your information to help producers as they market their cattle.

October 24, 2019

Thank you for providing the whole picture on our carbon footprint and climate change per the cattle industry. More folks need to read your report, especially those who rant about the cattle. I will be sure to reference your article with the next uninformed person. Your list of better ways to reduce our footprint was enlightening. I am guilty of a few and will make changes. :)

Alicia Lamborn

October 11, 2019

Hi Patricia, While some carnivorous plants may not grow in the wild in South Florida, I would think that if you were able to provide the right conditions (similar to the environmental conditions they experience in the wild) you would have success. However, depending on the genus, that will involve providing them with some cooler temperatures so that the plant can experience winter dormancy. According to my carnivorous plant book, Sarracenias do require a period of winter dormancy. They also prefer a planting media of 1:1 peat moss:sand and sphagnum, and require an acid wetland with water that is low in dissolved nutrients. I would suggest you consult with other botanical gardens in South Florida to see which plants they are growing, and select species that grow naturally down into Central FL as these are likely to be more tolerant of the tropical winter weather. I will also send you some additional information on carnivorous plant terrariums and bog gardens through email which you may find helpful.

Patricia Sonnelitter
October 8, 2019

Can any carnivorous plants grow in South florida? We would like to do a display at our botanical garden in Davie, Florida and all the literature says that carnivore plants grow as far south as central florida. We are looking for carnivore plants that will best survive and how to best grow them (light, medium, water). We really like the tall Sarracenias. Suggested nurseries? Any help will be appreciated.

Alicia Halbritter

October 7, 2019

Thanks for the suggestion! I'll work on gathering that information!

Alicia Halbritter

October 7, 2019

Oh no! Should be fixed now! But just in case, you can sign up here:

October 7, 2019

This link is dead, I cannot register to receive the Herald.

Nicholas Sisco
October 4, 2019

Your first argument about methane is missing something. You bring up poundage of CO2 from fossil fuels but forgot to compare that to how much methane cows produce and correlate that to an estimate of CO2 ultimately produced. You might want to clarify the output of methane from cattle and convert that to a tonnage or poundage of CO2, so you can make a more fair comparison. Otherwise it was though provoking. :)

Alicia Halbritter

October 3, 2019

Hi Ken! Absolutely. The point there is trying to show that the greenhouse gas emissions are not as strong as one might think if they are thought of in a 'net' system. Since grass-finished cattle require more pasture to graze, and that pasture is continuously using CO2 from the atmosphere for respiration, then grass-finished production systems have the ability to maintain a lower net GHG (42% less) than if compared to the cattle's emissions alone (since pasture raised cattle emit more GHG than grain-finished cattle due to eating forage and longer time spans before reaching market weight). You can see the graphic here: The Fact Sheet Here: And the research study associated with that fact here:

Ken Lassman
October 2, 2019

Can you expand on/provide a link to your sentence: " Grass-finished beef can reduce their carbon footprint by 42% if they use forage from grasslands that sequester carbon." Sounds like an important topic that I'd like to know more about.

Terry Reynolds
October 2, 2019

Alicia, Excellent work! Keep spreading the message to help change the inaccurate perception that the mainstream has. Thank you!

Alicia Halbritter

September 30, 2019

John, Each claim now has a clickable link directing you to the source of information!

Alicia Halbritter

September 30, 2019

Hi John! Sources are linked in the headings of each section and at the end of the article (NCBA research website). But to make it easier I will provide more visible links throughout the article. Thanks for your feedback!

September 30, 2019

This article would be significantly more useful if sources were cited and linked to for the bold typeface statements...

September 27, 2019

Excellent job!

Alicia Halbritter

September 27, 2019

Absolutely! We love sharing our information! Share the link with anyone and everyone!

Suze Bohleen
September 27, 2019

WOW, really well written. Great information in a concise direct way. I would like to sent it to all the Family, Consumer Science teachers in Montana that I deal with. If it's alright with you. Thanks for the great twist on a current topic.

Sharon Bedell
August 26, 2019

Karl Thiderman’s comment regarding the grass in Texas 200 years ago was high as the backs of the horses is a bit exaggerated i’m Thinking. My family homesteaded in the Sandhills of Nebr 100 years ago and you could track a coyote for miles through and in between the bunch grass. Nowadays the Sandhills are covered with good feed for thousands of cattle. Actual facts should be important. Also in the comment it’s mentioned regarding the soil returning the water practices. It’s been proven that sheep and cattle grazing the land make indentations in the ground holding the water to go down to the roots, compared to taking all grazing off those pastures only ruins the soil trying to grow those plants.

Siti Nur Amalia
August 20, 2019

yeah..its very important to ensure the healthy of the animal..

Alicia Halbritter

August 14, 2019

Thanks Karl! Rotational grazing is definitely being realized as a critical tool for all livestock operations.

Karl Thidemann
August 14, 2019

Hi Alicia, An important point not made in your excellent article is that how livestock are grazed determines whether their impact on the land is beneficial or deleterious. Historically, much land globally has been desertified by poor grazing management. Consider how parts of Texas that today resemble the desert was covered by grass as high as people on horseback just 200 years ago. Fortunately, new approaches to grazing that emulate how grazing occurs in nature are restoring degraded grasslands and savannas, improving wildlife habitat, replenishing dried-up rivers, increasing ranching profitability, and capturing in soil 1 to 3 tons of carbon per acre per year (Machmuller 2015, Teague 2016). This video may be of interest. Soil Carbon Cowboys (2014, 12 mins.) Meet Allen Williams, Gabe Brown, and Neil Dennis - climate heroes and innovators! These ranchers now know how to regenerate their soils while making their animals healthier and their operations more profitable. They are turning on their soils, enabling rainwater to sink into the earth rather than run off. And these regenerated soils retain that water, so the ranches are much more resilient in drought. It's an amazing story that has just begun. Best wishes, Karl Thidemann Soil4Climate

Alicia Halbritter

August 8, 2019

Hi Steve, This off coloring is due to the growth of bacteria. You are correct that any egg found with an off colored albumen should be discarded. Learn more here:

Alicia Halbritter

August 8, 2019

Cecelia, I am not sure about the ecosystem services of dairies, I would have to research if this study has been done for that industry. As far as making others aware, the best way is to share! Share this blog and others like it to help keep others informed.

Steve Novak
August 7, 2019

Hello, What causes the albumen of a chicken egg to be lime green in color? I have been raising chickens for egg sales and personal consumption for roughly 15 years and every so often I will come across an egg that will have a greenish tint to the white. The color can range from almost neon green to a light hint of color. I haven't sold any eggs this year so from all that our family has consumed we have noticed two eggs with the color change. There is no odor and I don't know about taste because I always discard them. The flock is currently contained to their coop and have day long access to a bare ground run that I sprinkle with vegetation and scratch grains. The chickens range in age from 1 to 6 years. The floor of the coop is covered with a layer of white pine shavings and they are fed a layer crumble.

Cecelia Murray
August 6, 2019

I think about this stuff all the time. Add dairy farming and the impact is even bigger. How do we get this information out to the nonfarming public and policy makers.

Alicia Halbritter

August 5, 2019

The use of Electronic ID tags has been in the works for a while, talks with the EU about an export market have been as well but the two are not directly related. Having a stronger disease traceability system does make our aptitude for exporting beef stronger, but it is not currently a requirement of the EU export deal. At least as I currently understand the information that has been published. You can learn more about the EU export market opening here: And more about the USDA's move to EID tags here:

N Smith
August 2, 2019

It's my understanding that it's part of the plan issued by the United Nations, and the USA has to comply.

Alicia Halbritter

August 2, 2019

Happy to be of service!

Cindy Brison
August 2, 2019

Alicia--This was a great article!!!!! Thank you for writing it! Cindy

Alicia Halbritter

July 22, 2019

Hi Will, Although I don't know of any toxic compounds found in cultivated varieties of White Clover, I do not give recommendations on consuming plants. I do know that some wild strains of White Clover can have glycosides which can cause prussic acid poisoning. As always, be very cautious of consuming plants and be sure you are 100% positive on the identification!

Willl Fairbanks
July 20, 2019

can we use it for teas or food?

Alicia Halbritter

June 26, 2019

Connie, Dog fennel can be very difficult to control as it will sprout if any root tissue is left underground. It is best to study the "Dog Fennel Control with Herbicides" section of this article and decide at what height your dog fennel is and what you will need to control it. If used correctly (according to the label), the herbicides will have no ill-effects on your cattle.

Alicia Halbritter

June 26, 2019

John, Pokeberry are toxic, and symptoms can range from mild to severe based on each persons own reaction. Similar to how you can eat peanut butter just fine, but someone who is allergic (more sensitive) will have a severe reaction. Here is some information from poison control: Birds and other animals can consume the berries because 1. They often only eat them when completely ripe when toxins are relatively low, and 2. They have some type of digestive mechanism that makes them less sensitive or immune to the toxins. It is a beautiful plant, and people are welcome to keep the plant around to feed the wildlife, but should be mindful of children's interaction with the plant.

June 17, 2019

Alicia, I must say you make this plant sound much more dangerous than any other article I've read about it, even one by your University. I'm always happy to have it my yard when it appears. I have one now that's every bit of 10' tall and almost as wide. Beautiful plant!! How can the Song Birds and Deer eat this without being harmed? Thanks for everything you guys do. I love getting and reading all the blogs. Very informative.

Connie Gabriel
June 15, 2019

Help! I have had a problem with dog fennel for several years and they seem to continue to grow even when we pulled them up by hand. I need to know what to do to get rid of these weeds so that if I till the property up and Seed will it produce properly? My other concern is if I spray something on these dog fennel will they hurt my cows? I've always raise cows with my family but now I'm in charge of the land which I've never had to do this part. Please advise what would be best. Thank you Connie Gabriel 8136952453

Alicia Halbritter

June 12, 2019

Kevin, According to the USDA animal identification rules animals only need identification if they enter commerce (are sold).

June 8, 2019

I have an 8 month old brahman bull. He's a forever pet at my home. He's the only cattle in my posession, will not leave my property, will not be sold, will not be slaughtered or consumed, will not be shown... does he require a tag? Thanks

Alicia Halbritter

June 7, 2019

Gwen, Any meat imported into the US must undergo the same level of inspection before, during, and after slaughter that meat processed in the US must. Therefore, that countries on-the-hoof traceability program would not apply to processed meat. Any processed meat that is imported must undergo it's own testing before being allowed in the country and any contamination found after the fact would be traced back to the processing facility, these issues are normally food borne illness and have little or nothing to do with the issues we are tracking with live cattle identification (animal disease).

June 6, 2019

And who will they trace back to when American beef is blended with Mexican or Brazilian beef? Especially when it's all labeled Product of USA.

Alicia Halbritter

June 6, 2019

There are some exceptions to the rule, like for rodeo & exhibition cattle, but for the most part yes. Only cattle over the age of 18 months must have an official ID to enter commerce (be sold).

Jake McCall
June 5, 2019

So to answer the previous comment If the calves are younger than 18 months, they are not required to have them. Is that correct? Thanks

Alicia Halbritter

June 5, 2019

Kay, As of now, all cattle 18 months or older must be identified with a USDA approved official identification. Unless they are, 1. Moving directly to slaughter or through one approved livestock market and then directly to slaughter, 2. Moving to an approved tagging site, or 3. Being moved from one premises to another premises with the cattle remaining under common ownership as part of normal farm or ranching operations. Cattle shall not be commingled with cattle under separate ownership.

June 4, 2019

Does this include calves / yearlings that are taken to the market?

Alicia Halbritter

June 3, 2019

It is illegal to not have proper identification on cattle that enter the marketplace. Currently, first time offenders can receive up to an $1,100 fine, secondary (or more) offenses can occur much higher fees. If you plan to sell at a market or other commercial avenue the EID tag will be required no matter what, and markets will not accept cattle without proper identification, or will charge a fee to tag the cattle themselves. If you currently sell cattle, you already comply with these laws using the metal tags, they are simply changing the type of tag that will be accepted as official identification.

J Dog
May 30, 2019

Penalty if don’t comply ?

Alicia Halbritter

May 18, 2019

Electronic ID tags have been on the market for a few years. There are a few companies that currently sell them.

May 18, 2019

When will these be available for purchase

Alicia Halbritter

May 16, 2019

Hi Mike! Imported beef is held to the same food safety standards that USA-grown beef is! Any imported meat, poultry, and egg (or really any food product) undergoes strict evaluation before being allowed in the country and must originate from a country, establishment, or plant that is already certified to export to the US, and the products are re-inspected at the port of entry. Live cattle travelling to the US must undergo strict quarantine periods to ensure they are free from disease, we even have restrictions on some countries that we do not allow live animals from due to their current disease status. Since the use of EID's is for disease traceability it really is only important for live animal tracking, once an animal reaches a processing facility it can be tested and tracked back to its previous locations to track a potential disease outbreak. Since meat being exported in the US has already undergone testing, the countries we import from will not need to use EID's. However, as stated before, those countries the US import beef from have already been vetted by the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service and have their own disease tracibility program.

May 16, 2019

I wonder if foreign beef will be required to this standard coming into our country.

Alicia Halbritter

April 1, 2019

Goose eggs should be maintained at 37 C with 50-55% humidity. Sounds like everything is going alright for now! You can candle starting around day 8 to day 10 and check for development.

March 29, 2019

Im incubating 5 goose eggs in my home made incubator . It is incubating for about 3 days . I get the temperature at 37.4-37.7°C in the the thermostat . To double check the temperature I filled a plastic bottle with water and submerged 2 thermometers and closed the lid . After few hours when I brought it out both the thermometer's reading was 98°F . I think it remained in that temperature for past 3 days . What should I do now ? Are these eggs still good enough to hatch ?

Alicia Halbritter

March 18, 2019

A cut stump application of 20% solution of triclopyr is very effective.

Alicia Halbritter

March 18, 2019

Pam, The leaves of this tree are a characteristic shape and can be used to identify at any point in time. We definitely recommend pulling plants as soon as you see them, they have an extensive taproot system that makes them extremely difficult to pull up as they age.

Brian Lefferd
March 18, 2019

I have a couple of these in my yard, what would be the best way to kill the root after I cut them down?

Pam Adams
March 17, 2019

It would be great to identify this before it becomes mature.....

Alicia Halbritter

March 7, 2019

Although white clover has been introduced to the United States (it's not a native) it is not considered an invasive species and is encouraged to be planted as a forage, cool season turf, and in natural areas due to its ability to sequester nitrogen, provide food for bees, and provide a high protein food source for wildlife.

Jerry Moore
March 6, 2019

Alicia, Greetings from Jerry Moore, Sarasota Master Gardener. At one time white clover was considered invasive in this area. However it is one of my favorites for many reasons. Hope that it is now permissible to plant it in this area. Thank You, Jerry Moore

Alicia Lamborn

February 25, 2019

Ellen Meyers
January 28, 2019

alicia, I met you at last weeks IFAS pruning class. You had mentioned a fertilization schedule; I have looked but cannot access. Would you please email. Thank you, Ellen Meyers

Alicia Halbritter

January 11, 2019

Hi Vaughan, If you're located in Florida, the best option would be 2-4,D as long as the thistle is in the rosette stage and hasn't bolted. If the thistle has bolted, GrazonNext HL is your only option. Make sure to follow the label.

Vaughan B.
January 7, 2019

What herbicide do you recommend for weed control in fall planted ryegrass? Main targets are thistle and wild buttercup.

December 3, 2018


Shaina Spann

September 25, 2018

Hi Ann, We wanted to let you know that there is a special opportunity to visit South Prong Plantation. Doug and Teresa Moore are being honored as Florida Outstanding Tree Farmers of 2018 and there is going to be another tour on October 19th, please see the link to view the flyer. Let us know if you have any questions!

Alicia Lamborn

September 25, 2018

Below is the link to the upcoming event at South Prong which has a map and directions. The driveway is located almost directly across the street from Clet Harvey Road on 229 south of Sanderson. There is a sign so it should be hard to miss, but you can call the phone numbers listed on the map if you have any trouble the day of the event.

September 19, 2018

How do I get to SPP from Lake Butler. I have the address but cannot find it in Google earth.

Alicia Lamborn

September 5, 2018

Yes, that does seem like a misprint. I'm not sure how/why it was included. Thank you for pointing that out.

Shaina Spann

August 31, 2018

Hi Janice, Pullets from a local feed store cannot be guaranteed for any specific traits. You may want to keep her away from too much bedding. It is recommended to put pullets in a wire bottom cage so that the nesting instinct cannot be encouraged. Nesting areas and warmer weather encourages broodiness in addition to eggs being left for them to sit on. Be sure and collect them daily so there isn't a reason to sit, having a pole for them to roost on is better than nesting boxes if you are wanting to discourage broodiness.

Roi Levin
August 31, 2018

Thanks for the info. You may want to rethink recommending installation of Hibiscus in soil pH of 8.0. Hibiscus does not tolerate high-pH soils. For this reason the IFAS soils lab has a crop code (603) for it and other plants that prefer acidic soils.

Janice Buhl
August 22, 2018

I purchased a dozen commercial breed layer pullets from the local feed store. They are all adult and hens are laying, one turned out to be a rooster. Anyway, one of my barred rock hens disappeared and turns out she was setting on several eggs She was not in the hen house but in a sheltered area of brush. To hurry up the incubation, I took the eggs and replaced them with a few chicks from the feed store. She is a good mother hen. My question is, I thought that the brooding tendency had been bred out of the commercial layers. Now I see another adult laying hen, silver laced wyandotte, setting as well. I am quite surprised as this cuts down on the production for quite a while

Jim McGauley
July 14, 2018

Shaiina: please send over a brief synopsis of the camp last week. Alicia was gracious enough to send us photos of the governor and students. Mag and I were very impressed to learn the material you covered during the week.

Alicia Lamborn

May 8, 2018

Hi Linda, I have added you to our e-newsletter mailing list. Thanks!

Linda Stowell
May 5, 2018

If you have a mailing list can I please be out in it. Thank you, Linda Stowell (Former Master Gardener from Polk County under the wonderful Dr. Shibles)

Alicia Lamborn
February 20, 2018

It could be several years before it is offered again.

February 17, 2018

Will this be offered again after the Feb date?

Shaina Spann

February 8, 2018

Emily, I am so sorry that I am just seeing this message. I did not get a notification. Glad that we caught each other on the phone!

Emily McFarland
January 31, 2018

Shaina, I have Noah enrolled, but it will not let me register him for the Criminal Justice Academy. Can you help please? Emily

Shaina Spann

January 2, 2018

I would be happy to help you sign up for the Criminal Justice Academy! Because I don't want to have you share personal information through a public feed, I am going to send you an email. Update: I just checked 4-H Online, you are good to go!

Kameron Knowlton
December 24, 2017

Can you please help me get my son signed up. I think I did something incorrect with the registration.

Alicia Lamborn
November 29, 2017

Because no soil media is allowed in restaurants, commercial microgreen growers use these mats so that trays can be stored in refrigerators for a couple of weeks and cut as needed. The mats can be composted but should not be reused. The roots of cut microgreens would begin to rot and this would cause problems for the newly planted crop. The mats can be purchased in bulk and some types are even offered as large rolls. If reusing media is important to you, using a media like potting soil would probably bring you better results.

Arnold Juelfs
November 26, 2017

What do you do with a mat after cutting off mi rogreen? Csn,it be reused?

Michael Davis

October 30, 2017

If you have unwanted cockerels, check with the seller of the chicks. Most feed stores will take the cockerels back.

October 30, 2017

What can I do with my unwanted cockerels

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