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White pelicans fishing in Florida

American White Pelicans: Florida’s Other Snowbird

American white pelicans are one of the largest birds in North America with wingspans up to 9.5 feet across, or in other words, a wingspan that can reach from your floor to your ceiling (assuming you live in an average Florida home)!

Although some migratory bird maps do not show American white pelicans migrating to inland Central Florida, squadrons of these majestic birds have been observed on lakes throughout Polk County for years.

American white pelicans in flight.

American white pelicans in flight. Unsplash photo by Gareth Davies


American white pelicans are large water birds with broad wings and long necks. Their bodies are thick with short, square tails, large bills, and short legs. American white pelicans, as their name suggests, are mostly white with a yellow-orange bill, pouch, legs, and feet. In addition, their flight feathers have black on the underside and tips of the wings.

Occasionally, you’ll see a vertical plate, or “horn”, on top of the male’s bill. That horn is leftover from the breeding season and is thought to distinguish those males as better or stronger mates.  You can see examples of this plate, on the Cornell Ornithology website, here.

Migration and Habitat

Unlike brown pelicans, which are year-round Florida residents, American white pelicans migrate to Florida during the winter. During the winter months, they are usually found along the coast and in our inland lakes, rivers, and wetlands. Squadrons of American white pelicans have been reported on lakes throughout Polk County. They can be especially frequent along the Winter Haven Chain of Lakes, in the wetlands at Circle B Bar Reserve, and seen soaring overhead anywhere in the county.

Range map of American white pelicans indicating they winter in Florida, the gulf states, mexico, and central america.

American White Pelican Range Map from the All About Birds website,, © Cornell Lab of Ornithology.

American white pelicans are often observed with double-crested cormorants, anhingas, and pie-billed grebes in Polk County. Although the variety of bird species target different fish at different depths, they often forage together. From time to time, the two birds even nest together in the same nesting colonies. American white pelicans do not breed or nest while they are visiting Florida.  Their breeding grounds are found in the northern part of the Western USA and in Canada.

Diet and Behavior

American white pelicans’ diets mainly consist of small fish that they can herd into to shallow water but their prey of choice will change with the water’s depth. White pelicans often forage on:

  • minnows
  • panfish
  • sluggish bottom feeders
  • salamanders
  • tadpoles
  • crayfish

According to the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC), white pelicans feed differently than brown pelicans. Brown pelicans plunge dive to feed on their prey, however, American white pelicans feed on the surface of the water. Groups of white pelicans will coordinate their swimming to chase schools of fish towards more shallow water. By doing this, they are able to easily scoop their prey out of the water.

White pelicans often steal food from other water birds. About one-third of the time, they are able to successfully steal fish from other pelicans trying to swallow large fish. White pelicans even steal food from adjacent nests in their nesting colonies that another parent has saved for its young. They also try to steal fish from double-crested cormorants as they bring their prey to the surface.

White pelicans fishing in Winter Haven, with double-crested cormorants in the background.

White pelicans foraging in Winter Haven. Photo by Shannon Carnevale

American white pelicans are almost entirely silent except for breeding encounters and chick embryos. During aggressive breeding encounters, they emit frequent low, short grunts. Chick embryos express discomfort before hatching by squawking if they become too cold or hot. The calls of white pelicans can be heard on The Cornell Lab of Ornithology’s webpage.


Because American white pelicans are only in Florida during the winter, they must migrate back up north for breeding season in the late winter/early spring. The nesting period for white pelicans lasts 63-70 days from late March to early May. During this time, the pelicans form a season-long monogamous relationship. The incubation period takes 30 days and the average clutch size is two eggs.

For more information on the white pelicans’ breeding season, please visit the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s (FWS) PDF document.

For More Information

For more information on the American white pelican, please visit The Cornell Lab of Ornithology’s webpage.



This blog post was written by Natural Resources Extension Program Intern, Ms. Paxton Evans, under supervision by Natural Resources and Conservation Extension Agent, Mrs. Shannon Carnevale.

University of Florida IFAS Extension is committed to diversity of people, thought and opinion, to inclusiveness and to equal opportunity.
UF/IFAS Extension is an Equal Opportunity Institution.

21 Comments on “American White Pelicans: Florida’s Other Snowbird

  1. Hello! Tere is One white pelican that was left behind her flock . Can you tell me ir there is somethig that we can do ?
    She is in a pond in a park in San Luis Potosí México.

    • Good morning, Maria,
      Thank you for writing all the way from Mexico! White Pelicans are migratory, for the most part, but they do occasionally take up year-round residence in the warmer part of their annual territory. The flocks that do not head back north are known as “resident” populations, or in other words, they live in the given area year-round. For instance, in the state of Durango, Mexico, there is a breeding, year-round population of white pelicans.
      It’s possible that over time, the lone white pelican you’re seeing may join their ranks. Alternatively, when the majority of white pelicans fly south for winter, the lone pelican may join one of those populations.
      For specifics on your local white pelican populations and their “normal” migration patterns and behavior, I recommend reaching out to a local wildlife biologist or ecologist. Or, try contacting a wildlife specialist at a local zoo or conservation organization. They will know better what is normal for white pelicans in Mexico, than I.

  2. We are here on Lake Bentley in Lakeland, Fl. There are 13 White Pelicans on our lake here. They are so majestic, love to see them come each year.

  3. We saw a huge flock of birds that may haven white pelicans fly over south St. Louis, MO., heading north close to the Mississippi River. This is in March, 2020. Would this be possible? Kathy

      • Yes! Beautiful sight crossing over Crab Orchard Lake in southern IL this morning. I’ve never seen such a sight! So majestic, flying in formation and floating over wide areas of the lake. Couldn’t wait to search online, thrilled to learn I’d been treated to a special performance of the American White Pelicans.

        • Thanks so much for your comment, Patrick! I agree – they are quite majestic in the air! A bit goofy in the water, but what pelican isn’t? ha! There have been a number of sightings in your area this year, so you might see them again. Your area is in the middle of the White Pelican’s migration path to and from their winter refuges and spring breeding grounds. You can learn more about their typical range, here:
          Congrats on such a fun sighting, keep an eye in the sky.

    • I saw an extremely last flock I believe to be the white pelicans fly over north city in St. Louis, MO April 8, 2020. The flock was so large and they flew in a pattern similar to a murmuration of starlings… however they were flying to high and so large in size I knew they were not starlings, and their underbelly was white. They swarmed continuously… and then were gone before I could follow their next path of flight. The flock appeared easily over 200 birds in flight… it was the first time I ever saw such a large flock in St. Louis City.

  4. We have a large group of white Pelicans here on watts bar lake in Tn. They have been here for a couple of weeks. Get up ever day and hope they are still here . Enjoy watching them so much Wonder how long they will stay here?

  5. I am in Naples, Florida on this Easter Sunday, but have just received an email from our daughter in northwest suburban Chicago. (Barrington Hills, Illinois 60010. Old Sutton Road address.) There are at least 50 white pelicans on our pond, probably more than that. We have never seen them in the area before today. What a wonderful Easter gift!

    • That’s great! Thank you for reading and sharing your Easter surprise. 🙂 Happy to help provide information about these wonderful birds!

  6. I seen a flock of white Pelicans in Navarre, Florida. They were flying around the Gulf Breeze Zoo on Wednesday October 7th 2020. I was fishing on the Santa Rosa Sound.

  7. White Pelicans were seen in the Columbus Ohio area yesterday. Any idea as to how long they might stay in place before heading back out on the journey south?

    • Hi Tom,
      Thanks for your question! I don’t know much about the white pelican’s activities in Ohio or in that part of their migratory pattern; but according to a few online sources I could find, it sounds like they are a semi-common occurrence in Ohio in October. Ohio might be a stopover on their journey from Canada to the Gulf states or to Mexico. I know we start seeing them in FL in mid-November. In fact, I saw my first squadron of the year this weekend. A bit early, compared to recent years.

  8. Hi Shannon,

    Thank you for the wonderful article. I am on Merrit Island and just saw a very large group of white pelicans, and I wanted more information on these beautiful birds. I guess the white pelican squadron many have spotted my resident cormorants and stopped by to feed on the local seafood. Thanks for the info!

    • Thank you for the kind words, Patricia!
      Merrit Island is a beautiful location to watch White Pelicans. I hope you have a nice rest of your holiday season and can enjoy several more squadrons of these majestic birds while they’re here for winter.

  9. We have a flock of white Pelicans in Kissimmee, in one of our larger residential retention ponds. They have been here for a couple of months now. I found this article trying to learn more about them. Shame they will be leaving! Hopefully, they return once they have found a spot?

    • Hi Jim! Great to hear you got to observe some of these amazing birds! Unfortunately, I can’t say with any certainty that they will be back next year. There is evidence that migrating flocks of birds do use the same stopovers, but a lot depends on the year, the weather, the food along the way, and the health of other stopover areas.
      My best advice when you see wildlife that you are enamored with is to take the time to really observe them and cherish in that moment (from a safe distance that doesn’t disturb their behavior). We never do know if they’ll return, so it’s best to cherish the moments when you get them. 🙂

  10. We had a flock of pelicans in Chase Co Kansas to day what beautiful birds… I took some pictures cause you don’t see that very often…