Tomato Brown Rugose Fruit Virus (Tobamovirus, ToBRFV)

The Tomato brown rugose fruit virus (Tobamovirus, ToBRFV) is a highly contagious tomato and pepper virus that can be easily spread mechanically through the use of contaminated tools, hands, and plant-to-plant contact. This virus causes symptoms similar to Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) which manifests as yellowing of leaf veins and yellow spotting. Fruit may show symptoms of brown rugose. Plant tissue may develop necrotic lesions. This virus is more severe for young plants and can result in 30-70% yield loss.

This virus has not yet been established in Florida but with the states dependency on tomato imports, introduction is a possibility. In the US, this virus has been established in California but it was successfully eradicated. Precautions must be taken to ensure that tomato imports are healthy and show no signs of ToBRFV or associated symptoms. Once the virus has been introduced, control measures are limited to disposing of infected plants and strict sanitation practices to stop the spread to other plants. Molecular and serological tests are available for diagnosing this virus.

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Mosaic on leaves and tissue deformation. Photo by Salvatore Davino

Reduced number of fruit per branch. Photo by Diana Godinez

Marbling and decoloration of fruits. Photo by Salvatore Davino

Necrosis of sepals. Photo by Salvatore Davino