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Monarch butterfly on flower

Study: For monarch butterflies, plant variety is the spice of life

As monarch butterflies make their transcontinental migration this month across North America, they will depend on milkweed plants to produce the next generation of this iconic butterfly species, which has seen declines of more than 80% in its eastern population and 99% in its western population.

However, a new University of Florida study suggests that adding other flowering plants to the mix may help monarchs more than milkweed alone.

The study found that monarch butterflies laid 22% more eggs on milkweed in plots with a mix of milkweed and other flowering plants than they did in plots with a single milkweed species. The study was led by UF/IFAS College of Agricultural and Life Sciences graduate Rebecca Nestle as part of her master’s thesis in the UF/IFAS entomology and nematology department

“In general, we always try to promote the most diverse plantings as we can because this provides the greatest benefit for a variety of organisms. So, to see that we can do that and not have a negative consequence for monarchs was really encouraging,” said Adam Dale, one of the study’s authors and Nestle’s thesis advisor. Dale is an assistant professor in the entomology and nematology department.

According to the study’s authors, most monarch conservation efforts have focused on planting milkweed because of its critical role in the insect’s life cycle: monarchs only lay their eggs on milkweed, and the caterpillars that emerge eat only milkweed.

However, monarchs need more than milkweed to perpetuate the species, the study’s authors point out, and this may be why they are drawn to more diverse plantings.

“As adults, monarchs require nectar resources to refuel for flight and reproduction, so it makes sense that they would potentially colonize diverse wildflower plantings over plantings of just milkweed,” said Nestle, who is now a biological science technician at the U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service.

A monarch stops at milkweed plants in the research plot. Photo by Rebecca Nestle.

Typically, greater plant variety favors predatory insects. Previous studies have shown this can result is less abundant plant-feeding insects. However, when the researchers compared the number of monarch caterpillars lost to predators in each type of planting, they observed no difference. This means that monarchs are no more vulnerable to their “natural enemies” in mixed plantings than they are in those with just milkweed.

Mixed plantings are not just attractive to monarchs, said Jaret Daniels, curator at the Florida Museum’s McGuire Center for Lepidoptera and Biodiversity and one of the study’s authors.

“Let’s face it, milkweed is not the most aesthetically pleasing plant. However, a mix of colorful flowering plants and milkweed looks great. The results of this study show that conservation and beautification can go hand in hand,” said Daniels, who is also a professor in the UF/IFAS entomology and nematology department.

Since swamp milkweed, the milkweed species used in the study, only blooms for part of the year, a mix of plants ensures that there is something pleasing to the eye year-round.

“This also ensures a continuous floral resource for other insects including monarchs. The mix of plants helps us maximize the ecological value of the plantings,” Dale said.

The study also provides guidance for larger scale plantings in urban green spaces, said Daniels. The findings have already influenced pollinator conservation work Daniels and his team are conducting in roadside retention basins with the Florida Department of Transportation.

“We retooled our design to diversify the plantings. We are taking what we’ve learned from this study and applying it right away in the field,” Daniels said.

To determine which kind of plantings monarchs preferred, the researchers established 24 6-by-4-meter plots of two experimental treatments at the UF/IFAS Plant Science Research and Education Unit in Citra, Florida. One treatment had a mix of milkweed and other wildflowers, the other only milkweed.

Once a week during the study period, Nestle would count the monarch eggs attached to milkweed plants in each plot. Monarch eggs are about the size of a pinhead and must be counted by hand.

“On my own, it would take between 4 to 6 hours a day to count eggs—and I’m quick at it—and with help about 3 to 4 hours,” Nestle said.

Monarch caterpillar on research plot

A monarch caterpillar on plants in the research plot. Photo by Rebecca Nestle.

Nestle’s dedication to the project comes from a life-long passion for monarch butterflies and insect conservation. Nestle recalls being 10 years old and asking her mom to buy her milkweed so she could raise monarchs.

“I held onto that passion and used it to learn more about insects, pursuing undergraduate and master’s degrees in entomology, hoping to use my education for conservation efforts,” she said.

As a scientist with USDA ARS, Nestle will study how to use insects to control Brazilian pepper tree and Chinese tallow, two invasive plants.

“I think it is a perfect way to include my passion of insects, plants and conservation because our research is working to reduce these invasive species, minimizing herbicide use and hopefully reduce the abundance of these species in natural habitats,” she said.

The study, “Mixed-Species Gardens Increase Monarch Oviposition without Increasing Top-Down Predation,” is published in the journal “Insects.”

11 Comments on “Study: For monarch butterflies, plant variety is the spice of life

  1. I thought you would give suggestions on which wild flowers to grow for migratory

  2. It would be very helpful & list the various flowering plants used in this study. Being from Vermont, close to the Canadian border, are there any similar lists for areas much farther north than Florida?

  3. what other plants can be used locally for monarchs and other pollinators? Do I need to worry about local monarchs migrating to Mexico and cut back my milkweed planes some time in the fall or winter? Is there a good reference (IFAS publication or similar) for raising monarchs and other butterflies?

    • Hi Don, thanks for your questions. Here’s some information from Jaret Daniels:

      “The general recommendation for tropical milkweed in Florida is to cut it to the ground in late Oct/early Nov to help prevent winter breeding and disruption of the migration. This stands for folks living north of Lake Okeechobee. South Florida is more complicated and already has a non-migratory population and winter breeding.

      Regarding other plants for pollinators and monarchs, the list is extensive. Here are a few resources: Butterfly Gardening in Florida
      and A Guide to Planting Wildflower Enhancements in Florida.”

  4. How does one control lizards from eating the catapillars?
    I have counted 40 plus catapillars on a bush in the evening, and the next
    Morning there are none.
    This is happening all over my acre garden.

    • Hi Lois, thanks for your question. We’re asking our experts about it and will get back to you.

      • Hi Lois, our experts say the only really way to protect monarch caterpillars from predators would be to raise them indoors. Thanks again for your question.

  5. Hi. I live in S. FL (Miami-Dade) and we are having problems finding native milkweed to feed our Monarch caterpillars. Is there any suggestions on where we can find nurseries that have them? Thank you.

    • Hi Tammie, thanks for your question. We recommend contacting Laura Vasquez ( at the UF/IFAS Extension Miami-Dade County office for recommendations. Or, call the office at (305) 248-3311.