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Postbloom Fruit Drop (PFD) Identification and Management

PFD brochure

This two-sided ID card is idea for growers working in the field trying to identify or manage postbloom fruit drop (PFD) in citrus.  The ID card includes photos of blooms affected by PFD and photos of healthy blooms for… Read More

Spondias Growing in the Florida Home Landscape

Spondias mombin (fruit and leaves). Location: Maui, Enchanting Gardens of Kula

Spondias species (whose common names among English speakers include ambarella, Ataheite apple, mombins, and hog plums) are flowering trees native to tropical and subtropical regions. They are known for their sweet fruit and grow well in the warmest… Read More

Tea Shot-Hole Borer Euwallacea fornicates (Eichhoff, 1868) (Insecta: Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

Figure 1. Adult Euwallacea fornicatus (Eichhoff). A-B female, C-D male.

The tea shot-hole borer is an Asian ambrosia beetle introduced to Florida in the early 2000s. In Florida it does not have any known economic impact, but it is a serious pest of tea around the world and… Read More

A Sand Fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) (Insecta: Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae)

Figure 1. Adult (A) female and (B) male Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva), a sand fly. Credit: Cristina Ferro, Instituto Nacional de Salud, Colombia

The true sand flies are densely covered with setae, have long slender legs, and broad and pointed wings that are held erect at rest. Several phlebotomine species are vectors of the protozoan parasites in the genus Leishmania, that… Read More

Vespiform Thrips Franklinothrips vespiformis Crawford (Insecta: Thysanoptera: Aeolothripidae)

Figure 1. Female vespiform thrips showing constricted waist and white band. Credit: Runqian Mao, University of Florida

Franklinothrips vespiformis Crawford is a predatory thrips with a pantropical distribution. The distinctive red, humped-back larvae and fast-moving ant-like adults are predaceous on small arthropods. In addition to being easily mistaken for an ant, this beneficial thrips is… Read More

Black Scale Saissetia oleae (Olivier, 1791) (Insecta: Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae)

Figure 1. Adult female black scales, Saissetia oleae (Olivier) on cultivated olive (Olea europaea L.). Credit: Lyle Buss, University of Florida

The black scale is an important pest of citrus and olive trees. Originally from South Africa, this scale is now distributed worldwide. In Florida, black scale is found on citrus, cultivated olive, avocado, and many popular landscape plants…. Read More

Black Turpentine Beetle, Dendroctonus terebrans (Olivier) (Insecta: Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

Figure 1. Dorsal view of an adult black turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus terebrans (Olivier). Its large size, trapezoidal pronotum, and rounded declivity distinguish it from all other bark beetles infesting pines in the southern United States. Credit: Adam Black and Jiri Hulcr, University of Florida

Black turpentine beetles bore into the inner bark of stressed or injured pines, where they breed and feed on phloem tissue. Adults are strongly attracted to volatile pine odors and readily breed in fresh stumps. In typical forests,… Read More

An ambrosia beetle Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff, 1868 (Insecta: Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

Figure 1. Adult female Xyleborus affinis. Credit: Jiri Hulcr, UF/IFAS

Xyleborus affinis is one of the most widespread and common ambrosia beetles in the world. It is also very common in Florida. Like other ambrosia beetles, it bores tunnels into the xylem of weakened, cut or injured trees… Read More

Asian Horntail Eriotremex formosanus (Matsumura) (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Symphyta: Siricidae: Tremicinae)

Figure 3. Eriotremex formosanus (Matsumura). A- antenna. B- metatibial spur. Abdomen (C) and mesonotum (D) with long golden setae (hair-like projections). Credit: You Li, University of Florida

Since it was introduced to North America, the Asian woodwasp has become the most common wood wasp in Florida. It is not considered an economically important pest because it only attacks dying or dead trees, but the species… Read More

Dagger Nematode Xiphinema spp. (Cobb, 1913) Inglis, 1983 (Nematoda: Enoplea: Dorylaimia: Dorylaimina: Xiphinematinae)

Figure 9. Schematic diagram showing detailed morphological features of a dagger nematode, Xiphinema spp.

Dagger nematodes parasitize plants. They cause economic damage and death of host crops through feeding on the roots and by spreading viral mosaic and wilting diseases, but field studies have shown that some control measures targeting reduction in… Read More