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Replanting Peanuts

Deciding whether to replant peanuts is a tricky economic decision for growers. Weather conditions and seed quality, storage, and handling all affect peanut germination. Seedlings exposed to wet and cool soil conditions have slower germination rates and are at risk of seedling diseases. Dry soil conditions are also problematic for germination. It is ideal to plant into soils with adequate moisture and temperatures above 68 °F. This year, the southeast region experienced a cold front in early May that negatively affected peanut germination, leading some growers to consider replanting their fields.

Complete replant or supplemental replant?

Research has not found any benefit from a complete replant involving the burn down of the initial planting with herbicide and starting over with a new stand. Instead, use the planter to provide a reduced rate (around 3 seed per ft) of seed 3-4 inches to the side of the row of the initial planting. Providing supplemental seed costs less and utilizes the viable seed already in the ground compared to a complete replant.

When growers provide supplemental seed to poor stands their field will contain plants that vary in maturity. Maturity of plants from both the initial and supplemental plantings will need to be considered when determining optimal harvest time. Waiting later to harvest improves peanut grades by giving replanted peanuts time to mature. It is also important to evaluate podblasting methods of determining maturity, vine conditions of the crop, and weather/field conditions to determine when to harvest.

 At what stand count is it economically acceptable to replant?

For single rows, replant by supplemental seed is economically acceptable when stand counts are less than 2.5 plants per foot.

For twin rows, replant by supplemental seed is economically acceptable when stand counts are less than 3 plants per foot.

Peanut stand counts using a 5 ft pipe (photo credit De Broughton, UF IFAS NFREC – Suwannee Valley)

 Provide adequate time to assess emergence!

Growers should replant peanuts as early as possible if needed!  However, there can be variability in germination rates especially if seedlings are exposed to cool conditions. To fully consider peanut germination, check stand counts between 2 and 3 weeks after the initial planting and replant as soon as possible. If you plant supplemental seed 4 weeks or later after the initial planting it may be too late. The initial plants can dwarf the growth of the replanted plants.

 

2 Comments on “Replanting Peanuts

  1. I have peanuts that were planted about 8 years ago and plants still appear but don’t make peanuts. I dug one plant yesterday and there were not nuts. The ground has laid fallow ever since the first planting. I intend to wait till the tops turn yellow and hope there are nuts later in the summer. Question: Should I expect to harvest any nuts from these plants?

    • Hi Mr. Williams,

      Sounds like the plants are reproducing in your field. Even if there are only one or two peanut pods per plant that is enough to sustain the population. You may find pods or nuts later in the season! It will depend on plant competition and soil fertility. Don’t expect harvestable yields out of these plants. Peanuts require considerable calcium inputs to form nuts which is usually provided through the application of gypsum. If you discover nuts later in the season they may be easily crushed with your fingers and smaller compared to the peanuts grown for commercial production due to the lack of calcium.

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